Monthly Archives: May 2016

Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in AdolescentsA Systematic Review

Original article can be found here: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleID=2520634

Eugenia Chan, MD, MPH1,3; Jason M. Fogler, PhD1,2,3; Paul G. Hammerness, MD2,3
JAMA. 2016;315(18):1997-2008. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.5453.
 ABSTRACT

Importance  Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in adolescents and often persists into adulthood, most studies about treatment were performed in children. Less is known about ADHD treatment in adolescents.

Objective  To review the evidence for pharmacological and psychosocial treatment of ADHD in adolescents.

Evidence Review  The databases of CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for articles published between January 1, 1999, and January 31, 2016, on ADHD treatment in adolescents. Additional studies were identified by hand-searching reference lists of retrieved articles. Study quality was rated using McMaster University Effective Public Health Practice Project criteria. The evidence level for treatment recommendations was based on Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria.

Findings  Sixteen randomized clinical trials and 1 meta-analysis, involving 2668 participants, of pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for ADHD in adolescents aged 12 years to 18 years were included. Evidence of efficacy was stronger for the extended-release methylphenidate and amphetamine class stimulant medications (level 1B based on Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria) and atomoxetine than for the extended-release α2-adrenergic agonists guanfacine or clonidine (no studies). For the primary efficacy measure of total symptom score on the ADHD Rating Scale (score range, 0 [least symptomatic] to 54 [most symptomatic]), both stimulant and nonstimulant medications led to clinically significant reductions of 14.93 to 24.60 absolute points. The psychosocial treatments combining behavioral, cognitive behavioral, and skills training techniques demonstrated small- to medium-sized improvements (range for mean SD difference in Cohen d, 0.30-0.69) for parent-rated ADHD symptoms, co-occurring emotional or behavioral symptoms, and interpersonal functioning. Psychosocial treatments were associated with more robust (Cohen d range, 0.51-5.15) improvements in academic and organizational skills, such as homework completion and planner use.

Conclusions and Relevance  Evidence supports the use of extended-release methylphenidate and amphetamine formulations, atomoxetine, and extended-release guanfacine to improve symptoms of ADHD in adolescents. Psychosocial treatments incorporating behavior contingency management, motivational enhancement, and academic, organizational, and social skills training techniques were associated with inconsistent effects on ADHD symptoms and greater benefit for academic and organizational skills. Additional treatment studies in adolescents, including combined pharmacological and psychosocial treatments, are needed.

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Effect of Dilute Apple Juice and Preferred Fluids vs Electrolyte Maintenance Solution on Treatment Failure Among Children With Mild Gastroenteritis

Original article an be found at http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleID=2518402

Stephen B. Freedman, MDCM, MSc1; Andrew R. Willan, PhD2; Kathy Boutis, MD3,4; Suzanne Schuh, MD3,4 JAMA. 2016;315(18):1966-1974. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.5352.
ABSTRACT

Importance  Gastroenteritis is a common pediatric illness. Electrolyte maintenance solution is recommended to treat and prevent dehydration. Its advantage in minimally dehydrated children is unproven.

Objective  To determine if oral hydration with dilute apple juice/preferred fluids is noninferior to electrolyte maintenance solution in children with mild gastroenteritis.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Randomized, single-blind noninferiority trial conducted between the months of October and April during the years 2010 to 2015 in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Study participants were children aged 6 to 60 months with gastroenteritis and minimal dehydration.

Interventions  Participants were randomly assigned to receive color-matched half-strength apple juice/preferred fluids (n=323) or apple-flavored electrolyte maintenance solution (n=324). Oral rehydration therapy followed institutional protocols. After discharge, the half-strength apple juice/preferred fluids group was administered fluids as desired; the electrolyte maintenance solution group replaced losses with electrolyte maintenance solution.

Main Outcomes and Measures  The primary outcome was a composite of treatment failure defined by any of the following occurring within 7 days of enrollment: intravenous rehydration, hospitalization, subsequent unscheduled physician encounter, protracted symptoms, crossover, and 3% or more weight loss or significant dehydration at in-person follow-up. Secondary outcomes included intravenous rehydration, hospitalization, and frequency of diarrhea and vomiting. The noninferiority margin was defined as a difference between groups of 7.5% for the primary outcome and was assessed with a 1-sided α=.025. If noninferiority was established, a 1-sided test for superiority was conducted.

Results  Among 647 randomized children (mean age, 28.3 months; 331 boys [51.1%]; 441 (68.2%) without evidence of dehydration), 644 (99.5%) completed follow-up. Children who were administered dilute apple juice experienced treatment failure less often than those given electrolyte maintenance solution (16.7% vs 25.0%; difference, −8.3%; 97.5% CI, −∞ to −2.0%; P < .001 for inferiority and P = .006 for superiority). Fewer children administered apple juice/preferred fluids received intravenous rehydration (2.5% vs 9.0%; difference, −6.5%; 99% CI, −11.6% to −1.8%). Hospitalization rates and diarrhea and vomiting frequency were not significantly different between groups.

Conclusions and Relevance  Among children with mild gastroenteritis and minimal dehydration, initial oral hydration with dilute apple juice followed by their preferred fluids, compared with electrolyte maintenance solution, resulted in fewer treatment failures. In many high-income countries, the use of dilute apple juice and preferred fluids as desired may be an appropriate alternative to electrolyte maintenance fluids in children with mild gastroenteritis and minimal dehydration.

Trial Registration  clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01185054